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WM MAKE GOOD ENVIRONMENT SENSE



Q1. 1. What is Waste Minimisation?

Q2. Why Waste Minimisation (WM) - Need & Benefits ?

Q3. Examples of WM potential in select Industrial sectors.

Q4. Pre-requisites for adopting WM ?

Q5. What are the techniques for WM ?

Q6. What barriers are generally encountered in implementing WM techniques and how one can overcome these barriers?

Q7. What methodology one needs to adopt for implementing WM ?

Q8. Why one needs to follow a structured Methodology ?

Q9. What is a Waste Minimisation Circle (WMC) ?

Q10. Why WMC approach?

Q11. How do you compare Quality Circles with WMC's ?

Q12. What is the objective of the Waste Minimisation Circle project ?

Q13. How is the objective planned to be achieved?

Q14. How WMC's function?

Q15. What is the role of the WMC project participants ?

Q16. What is the structure of the WMC project ?

Q17. Who can be a WMC facilitator ?

Q18. What are the issues/dilemmas faced by WMC Facilitators in establishing a circle

Q19. What are the barriers encountered by WMC facilitators in running a Circle?

Q20. Who can form Waste Minimisation Circles ?

Q21. Who will fund the establishment and running of WMC's ?

Q22. What will the facilitators gain out of this project ?

Q23. What will WMC member units gain by Participating in establishing and running a circle?

Q24. Is the concept tried any where so far ? If yes where and in which sectors ?

Q25. What are the results achieved so far ?

Q26. Do's and don't's for WMC members!








1. What is Waste Minimisation?

Waste Minimisation can be defined as "A new and creative way of thinking about products and the processes which make them. It is achieved by the continuous application of strategies to minimise the generation of wastes and emissions".

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2. Why Waste Minimisation (WM) - Need & Benefits ?

Need To.
Conserve Resources (Energy / Water / Raw Materials etc.)
Control Pollution (Controlling contamination of Land / Water Resources / Ambient Air etc.)
Improve Occupational Health and Safety
Match Export Market Requirements

Benefits

Improving productivity and increasing profits
Improving Quality of Products
Towards Compliance with emission norms / regulatory requirements
Reducing Costs on Effluent Treatment / Pollution Control
Improving Work Environment / Better Ergonomics
Enhancing Public Image of the Enterprise
Makes Good Business Sense
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3. Examples of WM potential in select Industrial sectors.
DYE AND DYE INTERMEDIATE:

AREA.
UNIT
POTENTIAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION
Quantity
Value (Rs)
Yield improvement
%
10-25
15000-40000
By-product recovery
Kg/T
125-200
8000-20000
Steam conservation
Kg/T
200-500
200-500
Energy conservation
KWH/T
100-300
250-750
Water conservation
m3/T
20-50
20-50
TOTAL
23470-61300

ELECTROPLATING
TOTAL
TOTAL
Quantity Value (Rs/month)
Pretreatment
Chemicals
200-1000 Kg/month
500-2500
Rinse water
30-300 m3/month
30-300
Electroplating
Chemicals
20-200 Kg/month
2000-20000
Rinse water
60-500 m3/month
60-500
Post-treatment
Chemicals
10-40 Kg/month
300-1200
Wastewater treatment
Chemicals
1000-5000 Kg/month
8000-25000
Energy
1000-5000 KWH/month
2000-10000
TOTAL
12890-59000
PULP & PAPER
Area
Unit
General performance/ consumption range
WM potential
Quantity
Value (Rs/T)
Fibre
% Yield
40-44
40-100
250-600
Caustic
Kg/t
60-120
10-15
100-150
Additives
Kg/t
11-15
1-2
5-10
Steam
Kg/t
405-605
0.5-1.5
125-400
Electrical
Kg/t
850-980
60-120
150-300
Overall saving capacity
Kg/t
5-20
75-300
75-300
Water consumption
M3/t
180-280
60-120
25-50
Total
730-1800
TANNERY
AREA
POTENTIAL
UNHAIRING AND LIMING
Recycling lime sulphide liquor
· 20-50% sulphide reduction
· 60% lime reduction
CHROME TANNING
Recycling chrome tannage
10-20% chrome savig
Chrome precipitation & recovery
98% chrome recovery
FINISHING
Direct contact applications
20-30% reduction in chemical consumption
Non-solvent finishing
100% solvent reduction
Yield improvement
2-5%
HOSIERY PROCESSING UNITS
ITEM
UNIT
POTENTIAL FOR CLEANER PRODUCTIONt
QUANTITY
VALUE (In Rupees)
Production
% increase
20-30
350-500
Chemical & Dye stuffs
Kg/T
10.40%
1000-4000
Water
m3/T
50-100
25-50
Fuel/Coal
Kg/T
200-800
400-1600
Energy
KWH/T
30-60
100-200
Potential range : 2000-5000 Rs/Ton

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4. Pre-requisites for adopting WM ?
Willingness

Commitment
Open mind
Team Work
Structured Methodology


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5. What are the techniques for WM ?

Source Reduction
¨ Good housekeeping
¨ Technology-change
¨ Raw-material quality control
¨ Better process control
¨ Equipment modification etc.

Waste Utilization
¨ Recycling
¨ Recovery
- Reuse.



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6. What barriers are generally encountered in implementing WM Techniques ? What measures one can adopt for overcoming the barriers ?
SPECIFIC BARRIER
MEASURES TO OVERCOME
POLICY BARRIERS
Reservation policy and protectionism for SME's resulting in adaptation of unproductive industrial processes



Taxation Policy which have limited the initiative for growth / expansion of capacities in SME's

Regime of Prescriptive Technologies for decades and consequent non-introduction of timely corrective measures resulting in propagation of obsolete technology (Khandsari)
Opening up of the Economy and Encouraging Competitive Forces

Introduction to Advanced Technologies and Best Practices

A regime of uniform Taxation Policy which encourages investment for expansion / modernisation of SMEs

Non prescriptive technologies that allow SME's scope for identifying and selecting technologies best suited for their manufacturing processes
ECONOMIC BARRIERS
Inappropriate Resource accounting resulting in excess consumption of Water / Electricity causing wastage and losses

Feeling that WM costs money, additional resources in terms of Raw material & Energy, investment in new machinery etc.

Low returns on investment from implementing WM measures.

Realising profitable margins and acceptable return on investments for decades by SMEs while focusing on maximising production despite low productivity and poor quality of goods while catering to large domestic demand for manufactured goods

Notion of steady / increasing demand for the manufactured goods in the country with a steady rate of increasing population
In evaluating Economic viability of industrial Enterprises inclusion of full and true cost of following issues must be undertaken :

- Resources consumed
- Pollution caused
- Waste generated
- Potential future liabilities introduced etc.



SME's should undertake value addition measures through innovations and enhancing product quality (by applying concepts like Quality Circles / Kaizen / 5S etc.) for matching higher consumer expectations and realising higher profitability

Improving competitiveness through improving productivity in a shrinking market
TECHNICAL BARRIERS
¨ Limited access to technical information.
¨ Limited availability of trained manpower
¨ Limited availability of technical experts.
¨ Lack of adequate external infrastructural facilities
¨ Limited in-house maintenance facilities
¨ Lack of documentatio - systematic records
¨ Limitations posed by existing technology.
Improving access to technical information through SISI's, Industry associations, Cleaner Production Clearing Houses, Waste Minimisation related Literature / Newsletters / Websites etc.

Improving Operator / Supervisor Training Establishments and introducing Wast Minimisation concepts in the curriculum. Encouraging Entrepreneurs to provide periodic training / retraining to employees for higher efficiencies in their units.

Building Capacity through training technical personnel (in different parts of the country) in respect of applications of Waste Minimisation Concept example developing WMC Facilitators

Development of suitable infrastructure facilities in industrial estates / zones.

Encouraging entrepreneurs to equip themselves or in partnership with suitable maintenance / monitoring / testing facilities

Create facilities (finance / consultancy etc.) for technology upgradation / revamping and re-engineering of enterprises
REGULATORY BARRIERS
Emphasis on End-of-Pipe Treatment for deducing environmental compliance
Emphasis on Waste Minimisation efforts to be undertaken by industry as part of Regulatory approach
ATTITUDINAL / CULTURAL BARRIERS
Resistance to change and friction among elements with in a company may introduce barriers like
- Lack of managerial commitment
- Poor internal communication
- Restrictive employment practices
- Lack of effective supervision.

Concerns about changes to product quality and customer acceptance

-Education and training programmes with managerial improvements.
-Encourage employees at all levels to provide valuable information about operational problems and insights into possible solutions
Introducing incentive schemes

Company should take steps to identify customer needs.
Increase quality control in manufacture
Mental Blocks:
Fear of disturbing tradition
Fear of criticism
Fear of making mistakes ( being considered a guinea pig)

Fear of making solitary effort (Not me first syndrome)
Fear of losing trade secrets
Fear of being exposed for inadequacies in existing processes etc.
Showing modern units to break traditional mind set, helping conduct trials with assistance from suppliers, training to enhance risk taking ability.
Myths
Good only for multinationals
Needs highly qualified personnel.
Requires latest technology
Total automation a must
Requires high capital investment
It's a one time activity
Has limited potential

Idea Killers
Let's think about it later
We have already tried it
This is not the right time
You don't understand the problem
Talk to John - This is not my field
It sounds nice in theory but will not work in practice
We are too small /big for it.
Has it been tried elsewhere.
It doesn't fit into our planning

Over all production cost increases
- Raw material costs
- Production rate decreases
- New equipment is required



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7. What methodology one needs to adopt for implementing WM ?










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8. Why one needs to follow a structured Methodology ?
A structured methodology helps in detailed assessment rather than making one jump to conclusions based on incomplete data. It also helps one to fix the targets more objectively aiding the organisation to allocate resources efficiently.


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9. What is a Waste Minimisation Circle (WMC) ?

Waste Minimisation Circle is conceptualized on the lines of Quality Circles (QC's) with the difference that in QC's the group is from within the Industry where as WMC's are intended to be among the industries.

A Waste Minimisation Circle thus can be defined as "A small group of entrepreneurs in the small scale sector whose units manufacture similar products and employ the same processes meeting periodically and regularly in the premises of each member unit one after another, to analyse the operation of the host unit to identity sources of waste generation and implement WM options leading to an increase in individual profitability and reduction in pollution load from the units."


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10. Why WMC approach ?
The WMC approach in promoting Waste Minimisation in SMEs is appropriate and sound because.
To
· WMC can generate a spirit of co-operation among its members even beyond WM
· Members of WMCs after achieving success could generate multiplier effect
· The WMC approach focusing on self help catalysed by the facilitator is a movement independent of regulatory pressures
· WM Options (WMOs) adoption, acceptance and implementation of can be ensured when WMOs are identified by entrepreneurs
· It ensures a greater reach within the country by utilising services of consultants located at different places in the country.
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11. How do you compare Quality Circles (QC's) with WMC's ?
QUALITY CIRCLES WASTE MINIMISATION CIRCLES
Developing innovative IDEAS and applying to the industrial processes for improving quality and ensuring better ergonomics in the work environment
Developing innovative IDEAS towards identifying Waste Minimisation Options and implementing WM Solutions for achieving economic and environmental benefits through collective efforts
Scenario :
- Within a given industry and applied on Shop floor level
- Employees who carry out tasks / operations in a section of the industry in same familiar surroundings

- Ideas are generated by brainstorming, each employee contributing his knowledge, experience and creativity to evolve solutions

- Commitment of the employees
Scenario :
- Among group of Small and Medium Scale units ( 5-6 Nos ) at Cluster of industries level involving units with similar processes and products
- Entrepreneurs / WM Teams focussing on varying versions of similar enterprises (i.e. member units)

- Ideas are generated by participants observing unique features in member units and developing innovative ideas by brainstorming / cross fertilisation of experiences gained

- Commitment of the Member Units



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12. What is the objective of the Waste Minimisation Circle (WMC) project ?

To realize benefits of Waste Minimisation Concept and achieve conservation of resources and environmental improvement by way of adoption of group efforts at industrial cluster level.

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13. How is the objective planned to be achieved?

1 By building capacity on 'Waste Minimisation Assessment' applications through training of WMC Facilitators

2 By creating awareness and disseminating information on Waste Minimisation to Small and Medium Enterprises

3 By providing a structured methodology for systematic application of Waste Minimisation concept.

4 By creating a platform for discussions and for sharing experiences, views, knowledge and innovations in implementation of WM Techniquese.

5 By enabling dissemination of information through WMC News letter






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14. How WMC's Function?

The WMC's progress hinges on two factors. 1) Establishment of WMC by careful selection of sector and WMC members. 2) Running of WMC by guiding the meetings, coordinating the WM activities, liasioning with nodal agency, advising on sources of information and resources etc. The methodology of WMC's function are hence outlined in the form of two process diagrams below.

Figure 1.0 : Methodology for Establishment of WMC




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15. What is the role of the WMC project participants ?

The World Bank
· Funding of the Project
MoEF
· Project Sponsoring and Providing Guidelines
Project Monitoring Committee
· Project Monitoring / Evaluation and providing guidance.
NPC
· Project Implementation
NPC
· Identificatio of cluster of industries
NPC
· Identification of opinion leaders/resource persons
NPC
· Identification of sector specific technical experts
NPC/WMC Facilitator
· Organising awareness workshop
WMC Facilitator/WMC Member units
· Establishment and Running of WMCs Formation of circle from interested units
WMC Facilitators
· Organising training workshop
WMC Facilitators
· Facilitating circle meetings
WMC Member Units
· Participating in circle meetings & discussions, implementing WM options


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16. What is the structure of the WMC project ?






Project Organisation and Communication Channels
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17. Who can be a WMC Facilitator ?

Institutions (E.g: Sectoral / Research institutions / Scientific bodies), Public / Private Environmental / Management Consultancy Organisations, Industrial Associations etc., who can offer initiative and a high degree of result oriented efforts to the project and who fulfil the criteria mentioned below can become a WMC Facilitator organisation.

S No
Criteria
Weightage
(Percentage)
1.
Type of Organisation (Research /Academic / Consultancy)
10
2.
Management's Commitment
15
3. Experience in Environmental Issues
15
4.
Linkages with Industry and Industrial Associations
15
5.
Available Manpower and their Qualification
10
6.
Area of Expertise
10
7.
Available infrastructure
15

Criteria for Individuals wishing to become WMC Facilitators :
S No
Criteria
Weightage
(Percentage)
1.
Industrial Experience
15
2.
Experience in Environment related field
15
3.
Nature of job (Consultancy / Academic)
10
4.
Available infrastructure
15
5.
Leadership and Managerial capability
10
6.
Communication Skills
10
7.
Level of Commitment
10


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18. What are the issues/dilemmas faced by WMC Facilitators in establishing a circle
-Certificate of identity as facilitator
- Introductory letter as trained facilitators
- Members expect full technical solutions
- Members expect support in terms of clearance from Govt. agencies
- Suspicion about misuse of data
- Non co-operation of members even after forming WMC
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19. What are the barriers encountered by WMC facilitators in running a Circle?
-"Not Me First" syndrome
-Fear of Competition
-Fear of losing monopoly
-Fear of misuse of information
-Fear of being exposed
-Sceptical about benefits of WMC

20. Who can form Waste Minimisation Circles ?

- Small and Medium Scale Enterprises
- Industries falling under Environmentally critical industrial sector
- Industries willing to share information and participate actively in group efforts towards evolving innovative ideas and solutions to effect Waste Minimisation in participating member units within their WMC
- Industries keen on achieving economic and environmental benefits

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21.Who will fund the establishment and running of WMC's ?

Ministry of Environment and Forests, New Delhi is funding this project.





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22. What will the WMC Facilitators gain out of this project ?
Besides tangible benefits in terms of Professional Charges other intangible benefits that a facilitator will gain are:
- · Receiving Training on WM Assessment Methodology / Techniques
- · Introduction to a large variety of case studies
- · Developing professional Linkages with National and International Agencies
- · Strengthening relations with Industries / Industry Associations
- · Gaining insights on existing industrial processes and applications of best practices
- · Experience in Environmental Auditing and Benchmarking
- · Opening up new market opportunities in consultancy services.


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23. What will WMC member units gain by Participating in WMC project ?

- Improved productivity and increased profits
- Improved Quality of Products
- Conservation of valuable Resources (Energy / Water / Raw Materials etc.)
- Progress towards achieving / complying with Emission Norms for Pollution Control
- Reduced Cost of Effluent Treatment / Pollution Control
- Improved Occupational Health and Safety standards
- Match Export Market Requirements
- Improved Documentation / Record keeping / Accounting system
- Developing Benchmarks for comparison with industry leaders
- Improved Work Environment / Ergonomics
- Enhanced Public Image of the Enterprise
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24. Is the concept tried any where so far, if yes, where and in which sectors ?


Yes!
The concept is tried in two phases. Phase-I is tried as an experimental phase with 15 WMC's established in different sectors in various towns and cities

Having achieved success in the first phase the second phase was initiated with plan to establish 100 WMC's. Till now 45 No. of Waste Minimisation Circles are established covering 180+ number of industries in 29 cities and towns covering 23 industrial sectors. The sectors and places where WMC's are established are given below:

1.
Khandsari - Bijnore,
13.
Pulp & Paper - Muzaffarnagar, Chandigarh, Modi Nagar, Rajahmundry
2.
Refractories - Muzaffarnagar
14.
Dye and Dye Intermediates - Ahmedabad
3.
Foundry and metal forging industries - Belgaum , Delhi
15.
Electroplating - Ludhiana, Cuttack,
4.
Hotels - Mumbai , Shimla, Bhopal
16.
Distillery - Akluj
5.
Textiles processing and printing ( Cotton, synthetics etc) - Ludhiana, Tripur, Surat, Faridabad
17
Dairy - Calcutta
6.
Paints - Vadodara
18.
Resins - Vadodara
7.
Bulk Drug -
19.
Marble & Slurry - Udaipur
8.
Rice Mills (Raw rice & Parboiled Rice) - Nizamabad
20.
Steel Rolling Mills - Ahmedabad
9.
Pesticide Formulation - Ahemdabad
21.
Printed Circuit Board - Ahmedabad
10.
Lead Acid Battery Manufacturing - Bangalore
22.
Edible Oil - Virudhunagar, Chitradurga
11.
Ply Board manufacturing - Dehradun
23.
Engineering sector - Bhilai
12.
Utensils manufacturing
(Aluminium, Brass and Stainless Steel) etc.- Jagadhri
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25.What are the results achieved so far ?

Together the 45 WMC's generated 300+ Waste Minimisation Options(WMOs) out of which 120+ options were implemented achieving an aggregate savings of Rs.100 Lakhs/annum. For details on achievements in individual WMC's see the section on achievements

26 DO'S AND DONTS FOR WMC MEMBERS

DO'S
Free and informal atmosphere should be maintained
WMC members should have harmony and respect for each other
Experimentations/ trials should be encouraged
Credit should be given liberally
WM Methodology should be followed
Be the principal listener
Proper documentation of activities should be done

DON'T'S
Direct financial assistance not to be expected
Ready made technical solutions should not be looked for
Don't allow snubbing
Don't impose ideas on groups
Don't demotivate be pointing mistakes

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