CHAPTER - 2

Environmental Scenario

2.0 Environmental Scenario
- 2.1 Pollution Problems
- 2.1.1 Domestic Waste
- 2.1.2 Vehicular Pollution
- 2.1.3 Agricultural Pollution
- 2.1.4 Industrial Pollution
- Polluting industrial sector
- Critically polluted areas and river stretches
- Polluting sub-sectors amongst SMEs



2.0 Environmental Scenario
- 2.1 Pollution Problems
Pollution problems have largely arisen due to the following sources / reasons :
1. Domestic waste
2. Vehicular pollution'
3. Agricultural pollution (pesticides and fertilizers) and
4. Industrial pollution.

2.1.1 Domestic Waste
Handling domestic waste is normally a municipal corporation responsibility and Indian cities have limited resources for proper collection, transport and disposal. Even in Delhi. onIy. 60% of the homes are connected to sewers and onlv 70% of sewage water is treated. There is a nonpoint pollution problem for unsewered areas, and a point pollution problem for the waste concentrated by sewers. Much of the treatment is totally inadequate. More than half of the country's cities have no sewers. It is estimated that 65% of water pollution is from domestic sources. Though domestic solid waste is efficiently picked over by various informal sector operators. However, the disposal of remnants leaves a lot to be desired.

2.1.2 Vehicular Pollution
The problem of vehicular Pollution is alarming especially in large metropolitan cities. It is estimated that 60% of pollution in Delhi is caused by vehicular emission. Such high levels of vehicular emission occur due to a variety, of reasons. The main reasons are continuance of old designs, continuance of leaded fuels, no specified limits on vehicle life, lack of technical knowledge with vehicle drivers & poor driving habits, inadequate roads system and heavy traffic congestion in cites etc. Of late pollution control checks have been made mandatory at the tail pipes, but even these are still to fully take root.

2.1.3 Agricultural Pollution
Non-point source agricultural pollution from fertilizer runoff etc., has not yet been adequately addressed. The need to meet rapidly growing food requirements has resulted in insufficient attention to the environmental impact of agricultural practices. High-technology agriculture has resulted in extensive use of chemicals in the form of pesticides and fertilizers. India uses 100000 tonnes of pesticides a year, much of which contain compounds banned in countries like the USA-

2.1.4 Industrial Pollution
The primary causes of industrial pollution are as follows
a) Prevalence of outdated- inefficient technologies that generate a large amount of waste
b) Large unplanned industrial conglomeration that have encroached upon and severely polluted their environs
c) The existence of large number of small scale industries that escape land use and some time even environmental regulations
d) Poor enforcement of Pollution control laws and
e) Lack of resources for implementing Pollution Control programmes
Industrial pollution is concentrated in certain sectors. The government has identified 17 heavily polluting industrial sectors, critical polluted areas, and river stretches as given below.

Polluting industrial sector

1) Cement 2) Thermal power plants
3 ) Iron & Steel 4) Fertilizer
5) Zinc Smelters 6) Copper Smelters
7) Aluminium Smelters 8) Oil Refineries
9) Distilleries 10) Pulp &, Paper
11) Dyes and Dye Intermediates 12) Pesticides
13) Dyes and Dye Intermediates 15) Petro Chemicals
16) Tanneries 17) Sugar and
18) Basic Drugs

Critically polluted areas and river stretches
Areas River Stretches
1) Vapi (Gujrat) 1) Sabarmati
2) Chembur (Maharashtra) 2) Subernarekha
3) Vishakhapatnam (AndhraPradesh) 3) Godavari
4) Talcher (Orissa) 4) Krishna
5) Manali (North Arcot(Tamil Nadu) 5) Indus (Sutlej)
6) Udyog Mandal (Kerala) 6) Ganga
7) Pali (Rajsthan) 7) Yamuna
8) Dhanbad (Bihar) 8) Hindon
9) Gobindgarh (Punjab) 9) Chanibal
10) Korba (MadhNa Pradesh) 10) Damodar
11) Singrauli (Uttar Pradesh) 11) Gomati and
12) Mangalore (Karnataka) and 12) Kali
13) Durgapur (West Bengal)

Amongst the 17 identified industrial sectors, most are dominated by large scale units that have made some progress in addressing their environmental problems. But some of the small and medium scale industry sub-sectors listed below have special environmental problems.

Polluting sub-sectors amongst SMEs
1) Cement 2) Thermal power plants
3 ) Iron & Steel 4) Fertilizer
5) Zinc Smelters 6) Copper Smelters
7) Aluminium Smelters 8) Oil Refineries
9) Distilleries 10) Pulp &, Paper
11) Dyes and Dye Intermediates 12) Pesticides
13) Dyes and Dye Intermediates 15) Petro Chemicals
16) Tanneries 17) Sugar and
18) Basic Drugs