4.0 Methodology for establishing WMCs
4.1 Identification of core group
4.2 Establishment of a WMC
4.2.1. Selection of industrial sector Sectors facing environmental problems Technologically backward sectors Sectors facing high competition Sinking / financially weak sectors Members of CETP
4.2.2 Identification of cluster of industries
4.2.3 Preparation of industrial profile
4.2.4 Selection of local resource person (WMC Group leader)
4.2.5 Conduction of Awareness Workshop
4.2.6 Establishment of a WMC
4.2.7 Training / Orientation Programme
4.3 Methodology for running of WMCs
4.3.1. Planning for WMC Meetings and application of 6-step structured WM Methodology
4.3.2 Formation of Unit level WM team
4.3.3. WMC Meetings
4.3.4 Identification and implementation of WM options
4.3.5. Activity report to NPC
4.3.6. Technical Assistance
4.3.7. WMC review / follow-up visits
4.3.8. Review &Final Workshops
Figure 1.0 : Methodology for Establishment of WMC
Figure 2.0 : Methodology for Running of WMC

4.0 Methodology for establishing WMCs
The activities to be carried out for effective functioning of WMCs can be divided into three stages
I. Identification of Core group
II. Establishment of WMCs
III. Running of WMCs

4.1 Identification of core group
To initiate the process, the agencies who will support and facilitate the entire activities have to be identified. This will involve
Support from principal agency :
The principal agency for this project is Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. It will provide necessary financial assistance to execute the activities under the project to a Nodal Agency. The funds for the project are mainly drawn as a componenet of the World Bank assisted IPP Project.

Identification of Nodal agency :
This agency will play the role of a catalyst in the entire process. It will provide necessary guidance and technical assistance during the course of the project. It will be the coordinator of the entire activities to be carried out in the procedure. National Productivity Council is the Nodal agency for this project.

The Nodal Agency undertaking the implementation of the project is National Productivity Council ( NPC ). NPC shall provide training to WMC Facilitators selected from amongst Sectoral / Research Institutions and Environmental / Energy and Management Consulting organisations. Further NPC will coordinate the establishment and running of WMCs through

the WMC Facilitators and provide necessary technical support and guidance besides releasing allocated funds as per developed progress linked payment schedule, undertake monitoring of the Circles and their review, disseminate information / achievements of the WMCs through News Letter and other awareness media and be responsible for successful completion of the project. NPC will as per TOR apprise MoEF and the World Bank on the progress on the project through reports and presentations and submit audited financial statements annually. A Monitoring and Evaluation Committee constituted under the project will provide guidance to the Nodal Agency on appropriate matters related to the smooth functioning of the project.

4.2 Establishment of a WMC
The main activities and their sequence to be undertaken for establishment and running of a WMC as per project TOR ( wherein NPC and WMC Facilitators coordinate and share responsibility ) include : -

· Selection of appropriate industrial sector(s)
· Identification of suitable cluster of industries for establishment of WMC
· Preparation of sectoral / cluster profile
· Selection of local resource person (Group Leader)
· Conduction of Awareness Workshop and Training Programme
· Establishment of a WMC and formation of unit level WM teams
· Running of a WMC - conduction of WMC Meetings, recording minutes, providing guidance to WMC Members, identifying and implementing WM options, assessing progress etc.
· Reporting and providing feedback to NPC
· Conduction of Review Workshop
· Assessment of economic / environmental benefits as per output / outcome based indicators
· Conduction of Final Workshop and Dissemination of results etc.

4.2.1. Selection of industrial sector
The industrial sectors which have potential for undertaking Waste Minimisation efforts and would yield economic and environmental benefits are selected for undertaking establishment of WMCs. A wide range of industrial sectors that have a predominance of Small and Medium Enterprises are available for example - Electroplating, Tanneries, Foundry, Pulp and Paper, Pesticide Formulation, Textile processing, Rice Mills, Khandsari, Distillery, Lime and Brick Kilns, Rubber processing, Dye and Dye intermediate manufacturing, steel rolling mills, edible oil extraction, paints and resins, drug formulations, hotels, refractory making etc.

The various factors which can facilitate the industries to establish WMC can be as follows. Sectors facing environmental problems
This category includes industries which are water intensive, consume toxic chemicals, have high fuel consumption, etc. These industries find it difficult to meet the effluent standards and are under constant pressure from the regulatory bodies to check their pollution load. Many of them face closure / shifting orders from the courts because of the pollution load generated by them. These circumstances motivate the entrepreneurs to take up Waste Minimisation measures to help them in bringing down the quantum of waste generated and in complying with the specified standards. Technologically backward sectors
This category includes those industries which continue to practice technologies with poor process efficiency leading to a relatively higher rate of loss of input materials. The potential for waste minimisation in these industries will be quite high. By implementing simple WM measures, the resource consumption can be brought down considerably. The returns on the investment will motivate the industrialists to take up WM measures. They will be interested in upgrading their factories so as to improve their product quality as well as the profit margin. Sectors facing high competition
This category includes the sectors in which there are large number of competitors in the national or in the international market leading to cut-throat competition amongst them. To start with, units of one cluster can come together to compete with units of another cluster. Once they have been brought to a common platform, the competition can be promoted to national or even international levels. The entrepreneurs would be willing to put in continuous efforts to gain an edge over their contenders in the market and this competitive feeling will serve as a motivating factor for such units to come together to form a WMC. Sinking / financially weak sectors
This category includes those sectors in which the profit margin is low and the entrepreneurs find it difficult to break even. The entrepreneurs from these sectors would be increasingly interested in bringing down the production cost so as to survive in the market. As WM can assist in their fight for survival, the unit members will be willing to participate in WMC. Members of CETP

This group specifically consists of industries which are putting in joint efforts to solve their environmental problems. From this group, a small homogeneous sub group can be selected which belongs to a particular industrial sector having similar environmental problem. As this group is already formed it would be easier to direct their activities towards pollution prevention (Waste Minimisation) rather than Pollution Control.

4.2.2 Identification of cluster of industries
Once the industrial sectors in which WMCs can be established are short-listed, clusters of units in these sectors have to be identified. To ensure meaningful interaction amongst the WMC members, the clusters should meet the following requirements.

a. The units should essentially be in the small / medium scale sector
b The product, the production process as well as the production scale of the units should be similar so that the problems and the solutions are common to all the units.
c The units should be located close together which would facilitate the meetings to be held regularly.
d. There should be about four to six such units in the cluster

4.2.3 Preparation of industrial profile
The WMC facilitator will prepare a profile of the industrial sector in which he proposes to establish the WMC. This following aspects need to be addressed in preparation of the profile.

I. Scale of operation
II. Location of industrial cluster
III. Proposed names of units willing to form WMC
IV. Process Flow Chart highlighting the major inputs, outputs and waste streams.
V. Potential / Scope for Waste Minimisation etc.

The above documents will be assessed by NPC. If establishment of WMC in that particular industrial cluster is found appropriate / feasible then consent will be given to the Facilitator to initiate the activities for establishment of WMC in that cluster.

4.2.4 Selection of local resource person (WMC Group leader)
The identification of local resource person in each of the clusters is important for group interaction and coordination of the activities. He would function as the group leader. His main role would be to co-ordinate the activities of the WMC along with the WMC Facilitator. For effective execution of his task, the group leader should have the following qualities.

a. Willingness and commitment to carry the team of WMC Members towards achieving the goal of their WMC
b. Sound technical knowledge of the industry and having a good standing in the member units
d. Personal and professional acceptability and Leadership quality to guide the team members and ensure proper co-ordination amongst them.
f. Availabilitv for circle activity
g. Innovative, ambitious and possessing a weak nerve with an obsessive desire for improvement / perfection etc.

4.2.5 Conduction of Awareness Workshop
In order to propagate the concept of WMC and benefits of WM, it is necessary to create awareness amongst the entrepreneurs. An Awareness Workshop is to be conducted in the selected industrial cluster / area with the assistance of the local resource person. The prime objective of the Awareness Workshop is to create awareness on waste minimisation and to motivate the industries to come together to form the WMC. The Awareness Workshop should cover the following aspects :

· Status and pollution problems of the industrial sector
· Concept and benefits of Waste Minimisation
· Need and potential for Waste Minimisation in the industrial sector
· Success stories on Waste Minimisation highlighting monetary savings, quality improvement, production capacity enhancement and reduction in environmental costs
· Concept and philosophy of Waste Minimisation Circle

4.2.6 Establishment of a WMC
Based on the interest shown by the industries in the Awareness Workshop, the nodal agency officials and the group leader will identify the WMC members. These members should be open-minded and co-operative to ensure free and fair exchange of information. They should also be technically well versed to logically analyse the process and financially capable enough to implement feasible WM options.

4.2.7 Training / Orientation Programme
After formation of WMC. an intensive one day Training Programme / Orientation Programme is organised for training the WMC members which would assist them in carrying out the future activities of WMC. The programme should cover the following topics:

· Recap of Awareness Workshop
· Techniques of Waste Minimisation
· Six step methodology for Waste Minimisation developed by NPC(Annexure-1)
· Case study on WM
· Modus-operandi of Waste Minimisation Circle
· Waste Minimisation experiences in other industrial sectors

After the Training Program, the WMC is formally established with signing of MOU by selected WMC members.
The methodology for establishment of WMC is illustrated in Figure 1.0

4.3 Methodology for running of WMCs
A systematic approach is to be adopted for effective implementation of the Waste Minimisation programme. The series of activities to be followed have been listed below

- Planning for WMC Meetings and adoption of 6 - step structured / systematic methodology
- Formation of Unit Level WM Team
- Conducting WMC Meetings
- Identifying and assessing feasibility of WM Options
- Undertaking implementation of WM options / solutions
- Providing technical assistance
- Organising review meeting / workshop etc.
- Submitting activity report to NPC etc.

4.3.1. Planning for WMC Meetings and application of 6-step structured WM Methodology
The WMC Member Units shall adopt the six step WM Methodology which is structured and systematic and suitable for application in the WMC activities. This iaspect is stressed as adhoc / unsystematic assessments of industrial processes do not yield desirable results and many opportunities / WM Options are missed out in the absence of a systematic approach towards Waste minimisation Assessment.

During conduction of Awareness Workshop / Training programme when WMC members, WMC Facilitators as well as the NPC officials would be attending a plan of action of the WMC can be developed / finalised as per the consensus of all the members. Thereafter for each subsequent WMC meeting etc., a schedule, venue, the agenda etc., shall be prepared and also recording of minutes and deliberations be undertaken to ensure systematic progress of the WMC activities.

4.3.2 Formation of Unit level WM team
Each WMC member will form a Waste Minimisation team within his unit. The team will consist of representatives from all the levels in the organisation which include the shop floor level workers, the supervisors and the managers. The team will be responsible for execution of the WM activities in the unit. This step is important since the involvement of shop-floor level workers will assist in identifying and implementing of WM measures. The WM team should necessarily have a representation in the WMC.

4.3.3. WMC Meetings
The WMC Facilitator and the group leader will be responsible for organising the WMC meetings regularly. During the meetings, the WMC members jointly analyse their problems and develop WM options. The meetings should necessarily be held within the premises of one of the member units primarily to encourage workers participation in the WMC and as per rotation in each of the member units. It would enable the workers who actually execute the job at the shop-floor level to come up with practical solutions related to WM. The involvement of the workers would encourage them to undertake implementation of identified options and will be encouraging / motivating factor in their deriving job satisfaction. The frequency of meetings should vary from weekly to fortnightly / monthly based on the requirements under the project and the progress being achieved. The following points should be kept in mind while organising the WMC meetings

- Ensure equal participation of all members
- Well defined agenda
- Minutes of meeting well defined
- Meetings should be need based
- Review of activities carried out in each unit / recap of previous decisions and progrees achieved
- Planning of activities before the next meeting
- Identification of areas in which external assistance is required
- Date and venue for the next meeting

4.3.4 Identification and implementation of WM options
The units should follow the systematic approach on which they have been trained to adopt waste minimisation in their units and should avoid jumping to quick solutions / conclusions. Initially, the members can start with data / information already available on their processes. If necessary any missing baseline data / records can be generated for the member units during the course of the WMC which will enable the units / WMC Members to correctly assess the status of existing operations vis a vis raw material consumption, product quantum and quality, energy and utilities consumption etc. In this regard WMC Facilitator shall provide necessary assistance and where required and feasible they can seek assistance from nodal agency. Through generation of material and energy balances and through systematic WM Assessment / comparison amongst participating member units and waste generation cause analysis suitable WM options shall be generated. Further, based on the techno-economic feasibility of the WM options, the units should collectively decide to implement the WM options / solutions in their respective units and assess the economic / environmental benefits achieved.

4.3.5. Activity report to NPC
The WMC Facilitator and group leader would simultaneously document the activities of the WMC and send the progress report of the WMC to NPC.

4.3.6. Technical Assistance
The members will identify their problems and the WMC Facilitator would inform the nodal agency of the areas in which they need assistance. The nodal agency will provide technical assistance to the WMC as feasible. In case a need is felt, then field study will be conducted in one of the units of the circle to generate baseline data required for analysis. The nodal agency officials will assist the WMC members in evaluation and implementation of WM options. When the assistance is required in a specialised field, then specialists in the respective field will be called in by the nodal agency.

4.3.7. WMC review / follow-up visits
NPC officials will make follow-up visits to the WMCs to review their progress and address any issues arising in the WMCs to facilitate smooth functioning of the WMCs.

4.3.8. Review &Final Workshops
In order to assess the performance of the WMC, periodic review and final workshops have to be conducted in each of the WMCs. In the workshop, the WMC members will share their experiences and present the results which they are able to achieve as an outcome of the establishment of WMC. For outreach effect, it is advantageous to invite other non-member units also. This would motivate other units to adopt this concept.
Figure 1.0 : Methodology for Establishment of WMC

The methodology for running of WMCs is illustrated in Figure 2.0